Lion-tailed macaques are rather small compared to other macaques. They are mainly arboreal, thriving in the upper canopy of rainforests. They are endemic to the Western Ghats mountain range of South-West India.
The lion-tailed macaque is classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. It is estimated that fewer than 2,500 mature individuals remain in the wild. Their greatest threat is not from their natural predators but from habitat fragmentation, poaching and the illegal pet trade.